Activity & Purpose Matrix for a Chemistry 1 Clickers Kit
Activity
Purpose
(“G” indicates group response; “I” indicates individual response)
Engagement
G
I
Peer Instruction
G
I
Predictive
G
I
Formative Assessment
G
I
Summative Assessment
G
I
Scenario-Based Questions
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
Laboratory Experiment Predictions
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X



Demonstration Predictions
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X



First Response Games
X
X
X
X
X




X
X
X



Vocabulary Questions
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
Identification Questions
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
Classification Questions
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
Concept Questions
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
Calculation Questions
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
Science and Ethics Questions
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X



Attitudinal Questions
X
X
X






X
X
X




Activity Descriptors

1. Scenario-Based Questions:
· consist of a series of questions that are related to one another by theme or storyline
· introduce a realistic setting and, as the story unfolds, is interrupted with questions for the students to answer

2/3. Laboratory Experiment or Demonstration Predictions:
· allow the instructor to uncover student misconceptions and/or preconceived ideas prior to an experiment or demonstration
· cause students to become more involved with an experiment or demonstration when they make predictions about the outcome
· improve students’ study habits when an experiment or demonstration is introduced one or more days before students make a prediction and observe the outcome (this way students are given the opportunity to research to outcome before making their prediction)

4. First Response Review Games:
· increase engagement by adding the element of competition to review science facts and concepts or practice problem solving skills
· when implemented with a SRS, are easier to judge because first responders are determined by a “machine,” and not by a person

5. Vocabulary Questions:
· allow students to predict the meanings of words based on their knowledge of common prefixes and/or suffixes
· provide instructors with a means to pre-test students’ vocabulary knowledge. When the answers to multiple choice or true and false vocabulary questions are displayed, teaching moments are created for the students that answered incorrectly
· help students to use new science vocabulary words appropriately

6. Identification Questions:
· allow students to label science diagrams representing lab equipment used in class and/or science equipment referred to during class
· help students to demonstrate their ability to gather appropriate information from tables, charts and/or graphs

7. Classification Questions:
· help students use the higher level thinking skills that are necessary to analyze a list of terms or concepts and then place them into their appropriate categories
· can be used with a SRS to immediately provide teacher and student feedback about students’ abilities to classify new terms or concepts

8. Concept Questions:
· Pre-concept – prior to introducing a new concept, students can be quizzed on the concept to determine their pre-conceived ideas and their general knowledge about the concept
· Mid-concept – during the teaching of a new concept, the material can broken-down into small "chunks," or sub-concepts, and presented with periodic "mid-concept" or "check your understanding" types of questions. Mid-concept questions are a great way to perform formative assessments
· Post-concept – after a concept has been taught, students can be quizzed on the concept to determine their level of understanding

9. Calculation Questions:
· help students use the higher level thinking skills that are necessary to analyze and solve problems involving mathematical calculations
· can be used with a SRS to immediately provide teacher and student feedback about students’ abilities to solve chemistry problems involving mathematical calculations

10. Science & Ethics Questions:
· consist of a series of questions that are related to one another by theme or storyline
· introduce a realistic setting and, as the story unfolds, is interrupted with questions for the students to answer
· focus on the moral dilemma that results from controversial scientific discoveries or inventions
· use Likert Scale questions to evaluate students’ opinions as they relate to science and ethics. For example, although titanium dioxide is used as a food additive to whiten skim milk, its long-term health effects have not been completely determined. Students could be asked questions as to whether or not they agree or disagree with the use of titanium dioxide as a food additive.

11. Attitudinal Questions:
· measure students’ attitudes toward the importance / relevance of science education
· use Likert Scale questions to collect data that can be used as a starting point for class discussions about the importance / relevance of science education


Purpose Descriptors

1. Engagement – students become actively involved with course content on a higher level than traditional pencil and paper activities
2. Peer Instruction – students learn together by making predictions, answering questions and solving problems in cooperative learning groups
3. Predictive – students connect with vocabulary words, concepts, experiments and/or demonstrations by making predictions about their meanings and/or outcomes
4. Formative – responses to clickers questions provide informal and invaluable teacher and student feedback about student understanding. Answers to questions are usually displayed as a histogram on a large screen in the front of the class, and can be used to a adjust instruction accordingly.
5. Summative – clickers questions can be used to formally assess student knowledge anytime a multiple choice style test is used. Advantages for using a SRS to give a formal assessment include immediate feedback for teachers and students as well as the generation of automatic electronic scoring. Disadvantages include the possibility of cheating still exists with this type of assessment, students must move through the assessment at the same rate whether they are ready for the next question or not, and some clickers software programs are incompatible with certain electronic grading programs thus making it difficult to upload students’ scores.