Unit 6: Chemical Reactions & Stoichiometry


Unit Essential Question: How are chemical equations used by chemists to explain chemical reactions?


Concepts:

  1. Chemical Equations
  2. Types of Reactions
  3. Stoichiometry

Summative Assessment


Concept 1: Chemical Equations


Instructional Activities:

Pre-Instruction
Instruction
Post-Instruction
Clicker Activities:Vocabulary questions - students will identify the vocabulary words that describe the parts (including physical state symbols) of a balanced chemical equation. Students can work individually or in groups to complete this activity
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - students will answer embedded concept questions during a lesson on chemical equations. During this activity, students will demonstrate their ability to write, interpret and balance chemical equations.
Clicker Activities:First response game - students will work individually or in groups to answer questions about chemical equations. Most of the questions focus on the student's ability to balance chemical equations.
Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Supporting Activities:Chemistry textbook and/or answer key for a list of key terms describing the parts of a balanced chemical equation
Supporting Activities:Lesson on chemical equations in addition to practice worksheets on balancing chemical equations
Supporting Activities:Lesson on chemical equations in addition to practice worksheets on balancing chemical equations

What students must know:
  • Students will know how to properly write and interpret a chemical equation for a chemical reaction
  • Students will know the difference between a reversible and a non-reversible reaction
  • Students will know the collision theory and how it affects the rate of both reversible and non-reversible reactions
  • Students will know how to balance a chemical reaction

What students must understand:
  • Students will understand how chemical equations model real life equations

What students must be able to do:
  • Write, interpret and properly balance chemical equations
  • explain how to increase the rate of both reversible and non-reversible chemical reactions based on the principles of the collision theory

Lesson Essential Questions:
  • What information does a chemical equation give about a reaction?
  • According to the collision theory, what factors affect the rate of a chemical reaction?
  • Why is it necessary for chemical equations to be balanced?

Vocabulary:
  • Equilibrium
  • Collision Theory
  • Law of Conservation of Matter
  • Product
  • Reactant
  • Balanced Chemical Equation

Concept 2: Types of Reactions


Instructional Activities:

Pre-Instruction
Instruction
Post-Instruction
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - students will work individually or in groups to analyze and then answer predictive questions about the general equations for the 5 main types of chemical reactions.
Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - students will answer embedded concept questions about 5 different types of chemical reactions. The focus is on translating between a general equation (with variables) and an actual chemical equation (with chemical symbols and formulas), in addition to using the general equations to predict products. Students can work individually or in groups during this activity
Clicker Activities:Laboratory experiment predictions - students will work in groups to answer product prediction questions pertaining to experiments that they will be performing for each of the 5 main types of chemical reactions. This clicker activity serves as a formative assessment, testing student understanding of the 5 main types of chemical reactions.
Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Supporting Activities:Homework sheet with pre-instruction clicker questions (distributed 1-3 days prior to the activity)
Supporting Activities:Lesson on types of chemical reactions
Supporting Activities:Lesson on types of chemical reactions in addition to a homework sheet with post-instruction clicker questions (distributed 1-3 days prior to the activity)

What students must know:
  • Students will know the five basic types of reactions (synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion)
  • Students will know how to use the activity series and solubility tables to predict single and double replacement reactions

What students must understand:
  • Students will understand that there are different types of reactions and by knowing the type a chemist can predict the products formed

What students must be able to do:
  • Identify the five types of reactions
  • Predict the products of a chemical reaction based on knowing the type of reaction

Lesson Essential Questions:
  • What factors identify the types of chemical reactions?
  • How are the types of reactions used to predict the products of a reaction?

Vocabulary:
  • Chemical Reaction
  • Synthesis
  • Decomposition
  • Single Replacement
  • Double Replacement
  • Combustion

Concept 3: Stoichiometry


Instructional Activities:

Pre-Instruction
Instruction
Post-Instruction
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - students will answer a series of questions pertaining to the word "dozen." Working individually or in groups, students will identify how many items are in a dozen in addition to using the factor label method to convert back and forth between different units. For example, 12 dozen items is equal to 1 gross. Understanding that the term "dozen" stands for 12 items and being able to perform unit conversions between different types of counting units, will help students to understand the mole, the counting unit that chemists use when they perform stoichiometric calculations.
Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Clicker Activities:Calculation questions - students will answer embedded calculation questions during a lesson on stoichiometry. Peer instruction will increase engagement during the lesson as students work together to solve the problems
Clicker Activities:Calculation questions - students will work individually to complete a formative assessment on stoichiometric calculations.
Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Supporting Activities:Students will receive a homework assignment with the pre-instruction clicker questions 1-3 days prior to performing the activity
Supporting Activities:Lesson and practice worksheets on stoichiometric calculations
Supporting Activities:Stoichiometry lesson, previous calculation clicker activity, and practice worksheets on stoichiometric calculations

What students must know:
  • Students must know what is meant by a mole, Avogadro's number and molar mass
  • Students will know that a balanced chemical reaction shows the proper mole ratios of all reactants and products
  • Students will know what is meant by a limiting reactant and percent yield

What students must understand:
  • Students will understand that chemical equations can be used to determine the quantitative amounts of reactants used and/or products formed in a chemical reaction

What students must be able to do:
  • Solve stoichiometric problems using dimensional analysis and proper significant figures
  • Identify the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction
  • Calculate the percent yield for a chemical reaction and describe why the yield is less than 100 percent

Lesson Essential Questions:
  • What is a mole?
  • How do stoichiometric ratios relate reactants to products in a chemical reaction and how are they used to predict the amounts of reactants and/or products?
  • How can dimensional analysis be used to express stoichiometric relationships?
  • How is the percent yield of a reaction determined?

Vocabulary:
  • Dimensional Analysis
  • Excess Reactant
  • Limiting Reactant
  • Mole
  • Molar Mass
  • Stoichiometry
  • Avogadro's Number
  • Theoretical Yield
  • Percent Yield

Summative Assessment


Clicker Activity: A multiple choice summative assessment, designed for students to complete individually, will test students on each of the major concepts from unit six. The assessment will include vocabulary, identification, classification and concept questions
Supporting Activities: Lessons, practice worksheets and clicker activities on each of the major concepts from unit six