Unit 5: Chemical Bonding


Unit Essential Question: How do the types of bonding and the shape of a molecule affect the way we can use it?


Concepts:

  1. Types of Bonds
  2. Molecular Structure
  3. Nomenclature and Formulas

Summative Assessment


Concept 1: Types of Bonds


Instructional Activities:

Pre-Instruction
Instruction
Post-Instruction
Clicker Activities:Scenario-based questions - students will read several scenarios about things that join to create stability, and then answer questions about each scenario. This activity will then be used as a lead-in for a discussion on how elements combine to create chemical bonds, and how the compounds that are created are more stable than their individual elements. Previewing the concepts ahead of time, whether individually or in groups, will increase increase student engagement during the discussion on chemical bonding
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - students will answer embedded questions about types of chemical bonds, thus increasing engagement during the lesson. Students can work individually or in groups to complete this activity
Clicker Activities:First response game - students will work in groups to answer questions about types of bonds. When given two elements, students will need to determine what type of bond will form and why. Engagement is increased as students work in teams to answer predictive questions about bond type.
Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Supporting Activities:None - students do not need any background information to answer the scenario-based questions
Supporting Activities:Lesson on types of chemical bonds and a working knowledge of how to use the periodic table and the periodic table of ions to determine bond type
Supporting Activities:Lesson on types of chemical bonds and a working knowledge of how to use the periodic table and the periodic table of ions to determine bond type. Students will also complete a worksheet whereby they will compute the electronegativity difference between elements in order to determine what type of bond(s) the elements will form

What students must know:
  • Students will know what is meant by the octet rule
  • Students will know what is meant by ionic and covalent bonding and what determines which type of bonding occurs
  • Students will know what is meant by bond polarity
  • Students will know how metals bond and how metallic bonding explains the physical properties of metals

What students must understand:
  • Students will understand that elements combine in order to gain stability according to the octet rule
  • Students will understand that there are different types of bonds

What students must be able to do:
  • Predict the type of bond which will form given the elements involved
  • Show the bonding which occurs in binary compounds using Lewis dot structures
  • Explain diatomic elements based on bonding theories
  • Predict the chemical composition of binary compounds
  • Predict the polarity of a bond using electronegativities
  • Explain the physical properties of metals using metallic bonding and the sea of electrons

Lesson Essential Questions:
  • How does the distribution of electrons in atoms affect the formation of a compound?
  • What factors determine the types of chemical bonds that form between particles?
  • How do elements form ionic bonds?
  • How do elements form covalent bonds?
  • Are all electrons shared equally?
  • How are the properties of metals explained through metallic bonding?

Vocabulary:
  • Covalent Bond
  • Chemical Bond
  • Ionic Bond
  • Valence Electrons
  • Polar Covalent Bond
  • Non Polar Covalent Bond

Concept 2: Molecular Structure


Instructional Activities:

Pre-Instruction
Instruction
Post-Instruction
Clicker Activities:Identification questions - students will work individually to identify various molecular shapes. By completing the pre-instruction supporting activity and by using clickers to answer molecular shape identification questions, student engagement is increased
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - students will answer embedded questions during a lesson on molecular structure. Students can work individually or in groups as the teacher formatively assesses student understanding throughout the lesson. The clicker questions will keep the students actively involved in the lesson, thus increasing engagement
Clicker Activities:First response game - engagement is increased as students answer predictive questions about the shape, structure and properties of molecules. Students can work individually or in groups.
Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Supporting Activities:Students will look at pictures of different molecular shapes and work with a partner to match the shapes with their names using a word bank
Supporting Activities:Lesson on molecular structure
Supporting Activities:Lessons, worksheets and lab activities on molecular structure

What students must understand:
  • Students will know the basic shapes of molecules (linear, bent, pyramidal and tetrahedral)
  • Students will know how shape, molecular polarity and properties of molecules are related
  • Students will know the three types of intermolecular forces (London dispersion, dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding) and how they affect a compound's physical properties (melting point and boiling point)

What students must understand:
  • Students will understand how the molecular shape and structure of a compound affects its physical properties

What students must be able to do:
  • Predict the shape of a molecule using Lewis dot structures and/or models
  • Explain physical properties of molecules in terms of intermolecular forces
  • Explain the unique properties of water due to hydrogen bonding

Lesson Essential Questions:
  • How can we predict the shape, structure and properties of molecules?

Vocabulary:
  • Polarity

Concept 3: Nomenclature and Formulas


Instructional Activities:

Pre-Instruction
Instruction
Post-Instruction
Clicker Activities:Vocabulary questions - students will work together to determine the meanings of the ten prefixes that are used to name covalently bonded molecules. The questions are predictive in nature and designed to increase engagement
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - students will answer embedded questions about chemical names and formulas during the lesson. Students can work together or in groups to practice applying the rules for naming compounds and writing chemical formulas
Clicker Activities:First response game - students will work individually or in groups to predict chemical names and formulas. Although they will have written practice in support of the clicker activity, student engagement is greatly increased during this first response clicker game on nomenclature and formulas. Because the game questions are taken from the written assignments, students' study habits are positively affected as they prepare for the activity several days in advance
Supporting Activities:Students will analyze a list of chemical names and their corresponding formulas. They will then use the list to help them decipher the pre-instruction vocabulary questions
Supporting Activities:Lesson on nomenclature and formulas
Supporting Activities:Lesson on nomenclature and formulas in addition to practice worksheets on writing chemical names and formulas
What students must know:
  • Students will know how to name inorganic compounds and acids

What students must understand:
  • Students will understand the importance of correctly naming/identifying chemical compounds

What students must be able to do:
  • Provide the correct name for a given formula
  • Write the correct formula for a given compound

Lesson Essential Questions:
  • How are the names of compounds determined (inorganic and acids)?
  • How are the formulas for compounds written?
  • How can I translate between a compound's name and its formula?

Vocabulary:
  • Nomenclature
  • Chemical Formula

Summative Assessment


Clicker Activity: A multiple choice summative assessment, designed for students to complete individually, will test students on each of the major concepts from unit five. The assessment will include vocabulary, identification, classification and concept questions
Supporting Activities: Lessons, practice worksheets and clicker activities on each of the major concepts from unit five