Unit 3: Atoms


Unit Essential Question: In what ways has the theory of the atom changed over time?


Concepts:

  1. History of Atomic Theory
  2. Structure of Atoms
  3. Electrons and Their Arrangement

Summative Assessment


Concept 1: History of Atomic Theory


Instructional Activities:

Pre-Instruction
Instruction
Post-Instruction
Clicker Activities:Vocabulary questions - students will use an answer key as they work alone or in groups to answer vocabulary questions about how scientists have contributed to the atomic theory
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - embedded questions designed to increase engagement during a lesson on how the theory of the atom has changed over time due to technological developments.
Questions can be answered individually or in groups
Clicker Activities:Vocabulary questions - the same vocabulary questions will be used (see pre-instruction clicker activities), but this time, without an answer key.
Questions can be answered individually or in groups. Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Supporting Activities:Answer key - students will use an answer key entitled, "Scientists that Contributed to the Modern Atomic Theory" to answer the pre-instruction clicker questions
Supporting Activities:Labeled diagrams of the scientific equipment used by each of the scientists that contributed to the atomic theory
Supporting Activities:Pre-instruction clicker activity and lessons on the history of the atomic theory

What students must know:
  • Students will know the major scientific advancements in the development of the model of the atom

What students will understand:
  • Students will understand that improvements in technology have caused and will continue to cause refinements in the atomic model

What students must be able to do:
  • Trace the historical development of the atomic model

Lesson Essential Questions:
  • In what ways has the theory of the atom changed over time due to technological developments?

Vocabulary:
  • Atom
  • Atomic Theory
  • Thomson
  • Bohr
  • Rutherford
  • Dalton

Concept 2: Structure of the Atom


Instructional Activities:

Pre-Instruction
Instruction
Post-Instruction
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - working individually, students will take a pre-test clicker quiz to demonstrate what they understand about the structure of the atom
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - during the lesson, students will work alone or use peer instruction to increase engagement as they answer embedded concept questions about the structure of the atom. They will use the periodic table to determine things about the structure of an atom, such as, its number of protons, neutrons and electrons
Clicker Activities:First response game - students will complete a formative assessment about the structure of the atom. In addition to knowing the major parts of the atom and knowing how to determine the number of each part of an atom, they will also differentiate between isotopes and ions as well as be able to demonstrate how to determine an atom's atomic number and mass number.
Questions can be answered individually or in groups. Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Supporting Activities:None - students will be taking a pre-test to demonstrate prior knowledge
Supporting Activities:Lesson about the structure of an atom
Supporting Activities:Lessons about the structure of the atom in addition to several worksheets whereby students will practice determining an atom's number of subatomic particles, atomic number and mass number. They will also complete a worksheet whereby they will need to identify isotopes and ions

What students must know:
  • Students will know the major parts of an atom (nucleus, electron cloud, proton, neutron and electron) and how to determine the number of each part in an atom
  • Students will know what is meant by an isotope and an ion
  • Students will know what is meant by mass number and atomic mass

What students must understand:
  • Students will understand that all elements are made up of the same basic components but contain different numbers of those components

What students must be able to do:
  • Determine the number of subatomic particles in given atoms/isotopes/ions
  • Calculate the atomic mass of an element given the fractional abundance of the element's isotopes

Lesson Essential Questions:
  • How can we model the structure of the atom as the basic building block of matter?
  • How many subatomic particles are in an atom and what are their roles?
  • How do we use isotopes and ions?
  • How is atomic mass different from mass number?

Vocabulary:
  • Isotope
  • Ion
  • Electron
  • Proton
  • Neutron
  • Quark
  • Average Atomic Mass
  • Mass Number

Concept 3: Electrons and Their Arrangement


Instructional Activities:

Pre-Instruction
Instruction
Post-Instruction
Clicker Activities:Identification questions - students will use the periodic table to determine an element's highest occupied energy level as s,p,d or f.
Questions can be answered individually or in groups
Clicker Activities:Scenario-based questions / Demonstration predictions - after being presented with several electron ground state scenarios, students will make predictions about the electron ground state configurations of additional elements.
Questions can be answered individually or in groups
Clicker Activities:Concept questions - students will complete a formative assessment to demonstrate their knowledge about electrons and their arrangement. Working individually, they will answer questions about the ground state arrangement of electrons around an atom (electron configuration, orbital notation and Lewis dot structures) using the principles/rules. Student engagement is increased as students follow the rules for predicting electron configurations and writing Lewis dot structures.
Students' study habits are positively affected when clicker questions are pre-assigned 1-3 days before a known clicker activity is administered
Supporting Activities:Resource - Color-coded periodic table identifying the s,p,d and f orbital regions
Supporting Activities:Lesson on how to predict ground state electron configurations
Supporting Activities:Lessons and practice worksheets on how to write the electron configuration and/or Lewis dot structure for an atom

What students must know:
  • Students will know that electrons occupy different energy levels and atomic orbitals in an atom
  • Students will know the difference between the ground state and excited state of an atom
  • Students will know the Aufbau Principle, Hund's Rule and the Pauli Exclusion Principle and how they are used to arrange electrons
  • Students will know what is meant by a Lewis dot structure and that it only shows the valance electrons

What students must understand:
  • Students will understand that the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom follows a predictable pattern for all elements

What students must be able to do:
  • Describe the ground state arrangement of electrons around an atom (electron configuration, orbital notation and Lewis dot structures) using the principles/rules

Lesson Essential Questions:
  • How are electrons arranged in an atom?
  • How and why do electrons move between energy levels?
  • How is an atom's most stable arrangement predicted?
  • How can Lewis dot diagrams model electron arrangement?

Vocabulary:
  • Energy Level
  • Lewis Dot Diagram
  • Aufbau Principle
  • Hund's Rule
  • Pauli Exclusion Principle

Summative Assessment


Clicker Activity: A multiple choice summative assessment, designed for students to complete individually, will test students on each of the major concepts from unit three. The assessment will include scenario-based, science & ethics, vocabulary, identification, classification and concept questions
Supporting Activities: Lessons, practice worksheets and clicker activities on each of the major concepts from unit three